Conservative Theology

January 03, 2009

BrewBlogging / Online Hebrew Resources


DailyHebrew has an awesome list of free online resources for Hebrew.

November 28, 2008

BrewBlogging / Visual Body-based Vocabulary Help


Adam Couturier had the following vocabulary-help image on his blog:

July 26, 2008

BrewBlogging / Ruth 2:11



And Boaz answered1, saying2 to her, "It has been made perfectly clear3,4 to me all that you have done5 for your mother-in-law after your husband died6.  You left7 your father, your mother, and the land of your kindred and journeyed8 to a people which you had not known9 before."


  1. Qal Imperfect 3ms + vav-consecutive - from ענה
  2. Qal Imperfect 3ms + vav-consecutive - from אמר
  3. Hofal Infinitive absolute - from נגד
  4. Hofal Perfect 3ms - from נגד
  5. Qal Perfect 2fs from עשה
  6. Qal Infinitive Absolute from מות - also see Williams 2007 - 207b and 210
  7. Qal Imperfect 2fs + vav-consecutive - from עזב
  8. Qal Imperfect 2fs + vav-consecutive - from הלך
  9. Qal Perfect 2fs - from ידע


  • נגד - to make known
  • עזב - to leave / to forsake / to loose
  • חמה - mother-in-law
  • אם - mother
  • אב - father
  • מולדת - kindred
  • תמול - yesterday (usually in a metaphorical sense)
  • שלשום - the third day
  • תמול שלשום - idiom meaning "formerly"

July 25, 2008

BrewBlogging / Ruth 2:10


My translation:

And she fell1 upon her face and she prostrated2 before him towards the ground.  And she said3 to him, "On what account have I found4 favor in your eyes to give me recognition5 when I am a foreign womain?"

  1. Qal Imperfect 3fs + vav-consecutive - from נפל
  2. Qal Imperfect 3fs + vav-consecutive + 3ms suffix - from שחת
  3. Qal Imperfect 3fs + vav-consecutive - from אמר
  4. Qal Perfect 1cs - from מצא
  5. Hifil Infinitive Construct + 1cs suffix + ל prefix - from נכר

The hardest part about this one was all of the wierd verbs - שחת does a consonantal inversion, and there were two first-נ verbs, one in a not-often-seen form.


  • נפל - to fall / to lie
  • שחת - to prostrate / to go to ruin
  • מצא - to attain or to find
  • מדוע - wherefore, on what account, literally "what being known"
  • חן - favor / grace
  • נכר - to regard or to recognize, same in the Hifil 
Took longer than I thought, but wasn't bad.

July 20, 2008

BrewBlogging / Ruth 2:9


Here's the translation:

Let your eyes be1 upon the field which they will harvest.  And walk2 after them.  Have I not commanded3 my men not to smite4 you?  If you thirst5,6 then walk7 to the vessels and drink8 from that which my men will draw9.


  1. This is a verbless clause - the jussive-ness is deduced from context
  2. Qal Perfect 2fs + vav-conversive - the vav-conversive can be used to continue the action of the imperative (Williams 2007 #179), so we are continuing the imperative-ness of the verbless sentence prior.
  3. Qal Perfect 1cs
  4. Qal Active Participle masculine singular + 2fs suffix (used as an infinitive)
  5. Qal Perfect 2fs + vav (for real condition)
  6. Just to make Hebrew more ambiguous, the ו prefix can be used to prefix the if part of a question (Williams 2007 #512)  :]
  7. Qal Perfect 2fs + vav (acting as a conversive and a "then" clause together!)
  8. Qal Perfect 2fs + vav-conversive
  9. Qal Imperfect 3mp + 3fp suffix (not sure what the suffix is referring to)


  • צוה - Piel - to command
  • עין - eye
  • בלתי - not
  • לבלתי - not to / so that not / because not
  • כלי - vessel / implement / baggage / equipment
  • שתה - to drink / to enjoy
  • שאב - to draw (water)

July 18, 2008

BrewBlogging / Babylon - the Hebrew Dictionary


If anyone wants to practice reading modern Hebrew, I suggest using Babylon as your dictionary.  This is especially useful for reading something like הארצ.

July 17, 2008

BrewBlogging / Ruth 2:8


Here is the translation:

And Boaz said1 to Ruth, "Why don't you listen2, my daughter?  Don't go3 to glean4 in an other5 field, and don't pass6 from this one.  And thus you will stay7 them8 with my women."

My notes:

  1. Qal imperfect 3ms + vav-consecutive
  2. Qal perfect 2fs
  3. Qal imperfect 2fs - negative commands use the imperfect
  4. Qal infinitive construct + ל preposition
  5. This messed me up for a while.  I did not know that אחר could mean "other" - I thought it only meant "after"
  6. Hifil Imperfect 2fs - negative commands use the imperfect
  7. Qal imperfect 2fs + fp suffix
  8. I have no idea what the feminine plural suffix was doing on there, so I just translated it as "them"


  • גם - also
  • עבר - to pass, pass by, or pass through
  • כה - thus
  • דבק - to cling, to keep, to close, to stay
Todays was challenging to put together, and I did not do a very good job - I had to rely on other translations a lot to see what everyone was saying.

July 16, 2008

BrewBlogging / Ruth 2:7


Ruth 2:7 was a little rough with both the syntax and vocabulary.  Much of this is probably wrong:

[the deputy is still speaking] 'And she said1, "May I please glean2, and I will gather3 from the fallen grain after the harvesters?"  And she entered4 and stood5 from the morning until this time.  She tarried6 in the house a little.7

  1. Qal Imperfect 3fs + vav-consecutive
  2. Qal Jussive 1cs + נא
  3. Qal Perfect 1cs + vav-conversive
  4. Qal Imperfect 3fs + vav-consecutive
  5. Qal Imperfect 3fs + vav-consecutive - this one threw me a little bit because it has a vav in the spelling instead of just a holem.
  6. This one is whacked out.  As far as I can tell, it should be a 3rd-ה verb, though I'm not sure what the mappiq is in there for.  This would make the root שבה and the stem the Piel.  However, this is being listed as a 1st-י verb everywhere I look, and is listed as a Qal in BDB.  What gives?  
  7. Largely because I couldn't figure out the verb, I never could put this sentence together on my own, so this is largely the product of looking elsewhere :(  Also, most translations add in "except" to the front of the sentence to show how it is being used.  I think that the switch from vav-consecutives to perfect is probably the justification for this.


  • לקט - to pick / gather / glean
  • אסף - to gather
  • עמיר - a row of fallen grain
  • עמד - to stand
  • אז - then
  • מאז - from then / from the time of
  • בקר - morning
  • ישב - to dwell / to sit / to tarry (accusitive of location)
  • עתה - time / now
  • עתה זה - now / this time
  • מעת - a little / fewness / few / small
That took me a little longer than I wanted.

July 15, 2008

BrewBlogging / Ruth 2:5 - 2:6


This one was fairly straightforward.  Here's my translation:

And Boaz said1 to his servant (the deputy over the harvesters) "who's young woman is this?"2  And the servant (the deputy over the harvesters) answered3 and said4, "she is a Moabitess young lady -- the one who returned5 with Naomi from the countryside of Moab."

  1. Qal Imperfect 3ms + vav-consecutive
  2. I originally thought this said "who is this young woman.  But it turns out (after reading a real translation)  that I only need מי for "who", and למי means "to whom", thus it is a possessive.
  3. Qal Imperfect 3ms + vav-consecutive
  4. Qal Imperfect 3ms + vav-consecutive
  5. Qal Active Participle feminine singular


  • נצב - deputy
  • נער - young man / boy / servant (someone under authority)
  • שוב - to return
The only thing that tripped me up on this one was the השבה, which I first thought was from ישב since Ruth used to dwell in Moab, but looking through my verb forms I realized that it must be a participle, and the only participles that use a qamets-hatuf are hollow verbs.

July 14, 2008

BrewBlogging / Ruth 2:4


This verse was easy as I didn't have to look up any vocabulary items:

And behold! Boaz had entered1,2 from Bethlehem and said3 to the harvesters, "YHWH be with you"4 and they said5 to him "YHWH will bless you6,7!"

  1. Qal Perfect 3ms
  2. In a narrative that progresses through series of vav-consecutives, a perfect verb often indicates that it should be translated into an English past perfect
  3. Qal Imperfect 3ms + vav-consecutive
  4. I first translated this as "YHWH is with you" (remember, 'to be' doesn't get a verb), but all of the translations had it as "YHWH be with you".  Williams (2007), however, lists a verbless desire clause (551), which makes perfect sense.
  5. Qal Imperfect 3mp + vav-consecutive
  6. Piel Imperfect 3ms + 2ms suffix
  7. All of the translations had this as a jussive - "may YHWH bless you".  They are probably correct.  However, I couldn't find a source to translate an imperfect as a jussive.
It's good to practice.  This is starting to get a little easier.  My goal is to try to do this every night after I read to my kids in bed.  Well, that's the plan, anyway...